Early Europeans bottle-fed babies with animal milk

Published in Nature News and Views

The foods used to supplement or replace breast milk in infants’ diets in prehistoric times aren’t fully understood. The finding that ancient feeding vessels from Europe had residues of animal milk offers a clue.

Small pottery vessels, sometimes with animal-like forms (Fig. 1), containing a spout through which liquid could be poured, have been found at prehistoric archaeological sites in Europe. One idea put forward is that they were used as feeding vessels for sick adults and the elderly. However, writing in Nature, Dunne et al.1 describe an analysis of spouted vessels found in ancient graves of infants in Germany that indicates that these artefacts contained animal milk. This evidence suggests that such vessels were used to feed animal milk to children, providing crucial insight into the diet of developing infants in prehistoric human populations.

Selection of Late Bronze/Early Iron Age feeding vessels.

Figure 1 | Ancient pottery vessels. Vessels with a spout for pouring liquid and of a size suitable for feeding babies have been found at archaeological sites. The earliest examples of such vessels5 have been dated to around 5500–4800 bc, but whether these were used to feed infants is unknown. Two vessels are shown of this size and shape from the late Bronze Age or early Iron Age (vessels dated between 1200 and 800 bc). The vessel on the left, from Vösendorf, Austria, is approximately 90 millimetres high. The vessel on the right, from Statzendorf, Austria, is about 85 mm high. Dunne and colleagues’ analysis1 of organic residues found in ancient spouted vessels (not those pictured) sheds light on how early populations might have fed young infants. Credit: Katharina Rebay-Salisbury

For years, many archaeologists ignored children when studying ancient populations, but researchers now increasingly recognize the importance of children when trying to understand the factors affecting earlier societies2,3. One such example concerns a major societal turning point in human prehistory, known as the Neolithic demographic transition, when there is evidence of a substantial increase in fertility and a growth in the number of individuals in human populations compared with that of earlier societies4.

The Neolithic period in Europe began roughly around 7000 bc. During the Neolithic, some humans began to move away from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle towards one that depended on crops and domesticated animals. How did this transition to agriculture lead to a baby boom? An exploration of the approaches used to feed infants might provide some of the evidence needed to answer this question.

Some of the earliest known pottery vessels of a suitable size and shape for use in feeding infants are from the Neolithic period. These artefacts, discovered in Germany, have been dated5 to between 5500 and 4800 bc. It has been suggested6 that during the Neolithic, weaning — when an infant’s diet changes from breast milk to other foods — occurred earlier in an infant’s life than was previously the case. This earlier weaning might have been accomplished by using animal milk and plant sources of carbohydrates. It has been argued that such early weaning could have helped to counteract the period of infertility that can occur while a mother is breastfeeding7, and thus might have led to the increase in fertility and population size during the Neolithic demographic transition. In the archaeological record, this fertility increase is evidenced, somewhat counter-intuitively, by an increase in the number of infants found at burial sites — if more babies are born in a population, then more babies will also die, and be buried8.

Dunne and colleagues examined ceramic vessels with spouts found in children’s graves from burial sites in Bavaria, Germany. One vessel came from a burial site dated to around 1200–800 bc (during the late Bronze Age), and two vessels came from a burial site from around 800–450 bc (during the early Iron Age).

The authors analysed traces of ancient food in these vessels to determine the origin of these residues, by assessing specific characteristics of fatty-acid molecules. Dunne et al. used isotope analysis to study the chemistry of specific compounds in the vessels, and also obtained molecular ‘fingerprints’ of the ancient lipids. They then compared this information with the fingerprints of known reference compounds. This evidence indicates that the vessels contained fatty acids from dairy products, probably milk, that came from domestic ruminant animals. The specific type of animal that provided this milk was not identified.

It is thought that humans first started drinking animal milk in Europe. A study9 published this year of proteins captured in dental plaque provides direct evidence that adults drank animal milk during the Neolithic period in Europe, with the earliest dates for this occurring around 6,000 years ago. Now Dunne et al. present the earliest known evidence of animal milk in small bottles for infants.

The exploration of infant feeding provides information about how babies have been cared for and how social attitudes towards infant feeding have changed over time10. Dunne and colleagues’ investigation of infant feeding during the Neolithic provides insight into cultural beliefs related to the body, infancy and motherhood. Furthermore, the type of food infants are fed, and when during their development they are given food in addition to breast milk, has a strong relationship to infant health and survival11.

Human breast milk is a perfect baby food, containing carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes and hormones12. It provides protection from infection because it contains numerous types of immune cell13,14. Some of the sugars it contains, although not digested by babies, support certain communities of gut microorganisms , which prevent disease-causing microbes from establishing a presence in the body14. By contrast, animal-milk products do not provide a complete nutritional source for infants. And the use of hard-to-clean bottles for animal milk poses a risk of exposure to life-threatening infections such as gastroenteritis. The introduction of milk in bottles during the Neolithic, therefore, might have led to a deterioration in the health of some infants.

Further research on the remains of people in European prehistoric cemetery sites should be undertaken to explore the effects of the introduction of animal milk as an infant food. This could be assessed by analysing the rate of infant and child mortality, and determining whether any signs of nutritional or infectious disease are present when studying the bones and teeth in infant remains. Furthermore, the age at which a child was weaned can be investigated using techniques that analyse teeth15, and gathering such data can uncover the variation in weaning approaches that existed in a population16. Such knowledge, together with evidence of disease for the individual being studied, might help to provide a greater understanding of the significance of the introduction of animal milk for the lives of ancient children.

References

  1. Dunne, J. et al. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1572-x (2019).
  2. Lillehammer, G. in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Childhood (eds Crawford, S., Hadley, D. & Shepherd, G.) 38–51 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2018).
  3. Halcrow, S. & Tayles, N. in Social Bioarchaeology (eds Agarwal, S. & Glencross, B.) 333–360 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2011).
  4. Bocquet-Appel, J. P. Science 333, 560–561 (2011).
  5. Meller, H. E. Bronzerausch: Spätneolithikum und Frühbronzezeit. Begleithefte zur Dauerausstellung 4 (State Museum of Prehistory Halle, 2011).
  6. Bocquet-Appel, J.-P. Curr. Anthropol. 43, 637–650 (2002).
  7. Chao, S. Clin. Perinatol. 14, 39–50 (1987).
  8. Jackes, M. in Strength in Diversity: A Reader in Physical Anthropology (eds Herring, A. & Chan, L.) 155–185 (Canadian Scholars, 1994).
  9. Charlton, S. et al. Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-019-00911-7 (2019).
  10. Tomori, C., Palmquist, A. E. L. & Quinn, E. A. in Breastfeeding: New Anthropological Approaches (eds Tomori, C., Palmquist, A. E. L. & Quinn, E. A.) Ch. 1, 1–25 (Routledge, 2017).
  11. Halcrow, S. E. et al. in Breastfeeding: New Anthropological Approaches (eds Tomori, C., Palmquist, A. E. L. & Quinn, E. A.) Ch. 11, 155–169 (Routledge, 2017).
  12. Lessen, R. & Kavanagh, K. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 115, 444–449 (2015).
  13. Martin, C. R., Ling, P.-R. & Blackburn, G. L. Nutrients 8, 279 (2016).
  14. Allens-Blevins, C. R., Sela, D. A. & Hinde, K. Evol. Med. Public Health 2015, 106–121 (2015).
  15. Beaumont, J., Gledhill, A., Lee-Thorp, J. & Montgomery, J. Archaeometry 55, 277–295 (2013).
  16. King, C. L. et al. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 28, 599–612 (2018)

 

 

Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past conference programme out now — sscip

We are delighted to announce the SSCIP 2019 Conference Programme hosted by the University of Sheffield. Also, for those of you who are yet to register, please note that registration is still open and will remain open until the 30th of September 2019. Please find the link for registration below. https://onlineshop.shef.ac.uk/conferences-and-events/faculty-of-arts-and-humanities/archaeology/rebels-without-a-cause-accessing-and-exploring-adolescentsadolescence-in-the-past If anyone has any […]

via Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past conference programme out now — sscip

Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past sponsored session at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology

Post by Kirsty Squires and Esme Hookway Another year, another Society for American Archaeology (SAA) conference. This year the conference took place between 10th-14th April 2019 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past (SSCIP) sponsored the “Health and Welfare of Children in the Past” session, organised by Esme […]

via SSCIP sponsored session at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology — sscip

Childhood in the Past, volume 12 OUT NOW

sscip

Here is the editorial by Eileen Murphy for the most recent volume of CiP. Enjoy!

Welcome to the spring issue of Volume twelve of Childhood in the Past, the journal of the Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past (SSCIP). The issue starts with a welcome address by newly elected SSCIP President, Dr Katie Hemer. While it was sad to see our former president, Dr Sally Crawford, end her term of office she will still be very much involved in SSCIP in her new role as a vice-president. I have no doubt Katie will be an excellent president and you can read about some of her ideas in her address.

SSCIP was as busy as ever in 2018. SSCIP Committee Member, Esme Hookaway of Staffordshire University, and Marion Shiner of the University of Sheffield, ran a SSCIP stall for the second year running at the Big Biology…

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Registration NOW OPEN – Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past Conference

sscip

Rebels Without a Cause? Accessing and Exploring Adolescents/Adolescence in the Past

12th Annual Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past Conference

Location: University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, U.K

Dates:  30th October – 1st November 2019
Organisers: Dr Katie Hemer, Dr Sophie Newman

Host Department: Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield

The 2019 SSCIP Conference seeks to explore the many facets of adolescence, and how scholars from diverse fields of research offer nuanced insight into the lives of those occupying this unique stage in the life course in the past. Papers are sought from researchers working on adolescence across the Humanities and Social Sciences (e.g. Archaeology, Art History, Anthropology, History, English literature etc.). This interdisciplinary conference is supported by the Sheffield Centre for the Archaeology of Childhood

(https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/archaeology/research/centres/childhood).

Confirmed keynote speakers: Prof. Jane Eva Baxter (DePaul University, USA) and Dr Mary Lewis (University…

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12th Annual Conference of the Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past

Rebels Without a Cause? Accessing and Exploring Adolescents/Adolescence in the Past

12th Annual Conference of the Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past

Location: University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, U.K

Dates:  30th October – 1st November 2019
Organisers: Dr Katie Hemer, Dr Sophie Newman

Host Department: Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield

Adolescence – the period of change within the life course when an individual transitions from childhood to adulthood. Some define adolescence as a period of disruption, when the body and mind no longer fit, and the individual has to renegotiate who they are – both in terms of themselves, but also their place in society. The adjustment and adaptation that comes with adolescence can also coincide with new responsibilities and greater expectations upon the individual, as well as exposure to new work and social environments. Is what we know about adolescence today also relevant to understanding adolescents of the past?

The 2019 SSCIP Conference seeks to explore the many facets of adolescence, and how scholars from diverse fields of research offer nuanced insight into the lives of those occupying this unique stage in the life course in the past. Papers are sought from researchers working on adolescence across the Humanities and Social Sciences (e.g. Archaeology, Art History, Anthropology, History, English literature etc.). This interdisciplinary conference is supported by the Sheffield Centre for the Archaeology of Childhood

(https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/archaeology/research/centres/childhood).

Confirmed keynote speakers: Prof. Jane Eva Baxter (DePaul University, USA) and Dr Mary Lewis (University of Reading, UK).

Please submit an abstract for a podium or poster presentation (max 200 words) to sophie.newman@sheffield.ac.uk by 31st July 2019.

Suggested topics include, but are not limited to:

  • What is an adolescent in the past perspective?
  • Methodological approaches to studying adolescents in the past
  • The role of adolescents in the community
  • The role of adolescents in the home
  • What did adolescents do? (e.g. occupations, apprenticeships, mobility, leisure time)
  • The liminality of adolescence
  • Health in adolescence
  • The material culture of adolescence (e.g. dress as markers of identity)
  • The education of adolescents
  • Adolescent resistance (e.g. did/how adolescents resist societal norms?)

THE CONFERENCE REGISTRATION SYSTEM WILL OPEN SOON.

Ancient Family: Bioarchaeology, Infant Health, and Disease

This week I’m tweeting for @RealScientists. Please come by and say hello. Here is my intro:

http://realscientists.org/2018/09/29/ancient-family-bioarchaeology-infant-health-and-disease/

Real Scientists is in Aotearoa/New Zealand this week with Dr Siân Halcrow (@ancientchildren), a bioarchaeologist and associate professor at the University of Otago. Her research focuses on historical infant and child health and disease, and she spoke with Real Scientists about her work so far:

How did you get into bioarchaeology?
I always had an interest in biological science, but also anthropology and the humanities, and didn’t quite know how they might go together. I took a bioarchaeology paper (the study of human remains from archaeological sites) in the second year of my university degree and really became hooked into the analyses of human remains.

I just really fell into it in a way, albeit with a lot of hard work to get a job in academia. I had a fantastic mentor who really helped me. I was lucky that she suggested that I should do a postgraduate thesis on the topic of infant and childhood health in the past at a time when very little research investigated past human life ways using this approach. Infant and childhood bioarchaeology is now deemed a very important endeavour in studying the past, and I have carved out an exciting and popular research niche. I manage the skeletal analyses on several international archaeological projects in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Chile, and have collaborations in the UK, Australia, Chile, Thailand, Laos, and New Zealand.

What are some of the central themes of your research?
As noted, I am a bioarchaeologist with a research interest in all things to do with infants and children. My research addresses central archaeological questions on the intensification of agriculture and human responses during this seminal time in prehistory, with a regional interests in prehistoric Southeast Asia, China, and South America. I also have a research interest in the ethics of bioarchaeological practice.

What do you want the public to know about your work?
To understand the present it is very important to understand past events. For nearly 2.5 million years of the history of the genus Homo, there was little change in social organisation, subsistence and general way of life. The innovation and intensification of agriculture was a revolutionary turning point for human society. The change to agricultural subsistence allowed greater security of food supply, leading to population growth, increasing social complexity, the development of new technologies, and changes in settlement patterns. Despite the obvious advantages of food security, this development coincides with major negative consequences for human health in some parts of the world.

Ultimately, these changes in human society were the initial stimuli for the development of overcrowding, malnutrition, sickness and poor living conditions, which affect more than half of the world’s population today. Women and children experience the main burden of these changes, which affects population survival. The only direct way to advance our understanding of this fundamental transition in human history is to probe into the lives of past peoples through bioarchaeology, the study of people from archaeological skeletal remains.

Can you tell us a bit more about how the rise of agriculture affected health and development?
This universally applied model of prehistoric health change with agricultural development posits that the transition from hunting and foraging to agropastoral dependence had major implications for diet, weaning, and therefore fertility, with a related increase in infectious disease and decrease in general quality of life. The rise in fertility is related to the increased availability of carbohydrate staples suitable for weaning foods, resulting in a shorter breastfeeding period and earlier return of regular ovulation after birth. A deterioration in general health is related to increased population density and unsanitary living conditions consequent to people living a more sedentary lifestyle. Deterioration in health has also been associated with changes in the natural and social environment, including the introduction of novel diseases from increased contact with domestic animals and the migration of people.

What does a great day off look like for you?
Hanging with my children (I am a mother to a 13 and 4 year old, which takes up most of my time outside of paid work), drinking a lot of coffee, and writing stories on my blog.

 

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Child Born 90,000 Years ago had Neanderthal Mother and Denisovan Father

Breaking news about an astonishing find of a child is hitting international news. The paper presents the genome of ‘Denisova 11’, who is represented by a small bone fragment from Denisova Cave in Russia. The authors found that the individual was a girl of at least 13 years of age and has a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father.

Interestingly, the authors argue that this type of mixed-breeding between Late Pleistocene hominin groups must have been common, given this finding of a Neanderthal–Denisovan offspring among a very small number of archaic specimens genetically analysed to date.

Screen Shot 2018-08-23 at 7.03.33 PM.pngDrawing of a Neandertal mother and a Denisovan father with their child, a girl, at Denisova Cave in Russia (Credit: Petra Korlević)

Screen Shot 2018-08-23 at 6.41.26 PM.pngThe bone fragment ‘Denisova 11′ from several angles  (photo taken by Tom Higham)

I was interested in the age-at-death estimation carried out from the analyses of cortical bone thickness. Although presented as fact that this individual was a “child” in the news with quotes from the main authors, it rightly states in the paper’s supplementary data that there are various problems with estimating the age-at-death of this specimen. They argue that the bone fragment may be from a femur, tibia or humerus because of its thickness of 8.4mms. However, archaic hominins were likely more robust, so it could be that this may have been from a smaller bone from a robust adult. So really they can’t actually say that it is a child, but that she was at least 13 years old. However, it goes without saying that regardless of this ‘child’s’ age, this is a very important finding.